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What we present today is an authentic archeology progress achieved through the use of modern rapid prototyping of 3D printing technology.


We present Hari, a victim of the war between the Dutch and Zealanders against the Frisians, battle that was fought over 700 years ago in a town 20 kilometers from Amsterdam. In this battle they were killed over 3,500 Friesians, and the archaeological discovery of the victims took place in 1991, among them several corpses with wounds to the legs and a skull.

Three different companies including the Italian 2be3D srl, the Virtutim srls and the Open State they entered into a project for the facial reconstruction of the skull that Hari was concluded in May 2016.

Now let’s see together the facial reconstruction of the skull in question.

It started the reconstruction of the skull geometries by a process akin to Revere Engineering and related 3D detection of the skull of the victim by means of photogrammetry; more than 150 photos taken with a Canon 60D APS-C and 20mm lens with fixed optics.

The skull brought other sword wounds, were counted more than eight cuts on the skull, which bear witness to the ferocity with which the victims were killed.

The three-dimensional model that was obtained was then produced and optimized to be printed with rapid prototyping technologies in particular FDM with ABS plastic; in the definition of the texture it was given maximum attention to all the nuances of authentic colors of the face by means of a latest-generation prototyping process for working the CJP chalk – Color Jet Printing.

hari cranio

The facial reconstruction was then performed manually through the fusion of two techniques: the American one that consists in the attachment of tissue thicknesses covered with plasticine or clay and Russian, which reconstructs the facial muscle to muscle. The profile of the nose was reconstructed following the model of George and his jaw was finally re-studying the anatomy of the population of the time. By following these precise and different procedures, it was possible to give a face Hari after 700 years.

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